MOTHERBOARD, insert the CPU, HEATSINK, and RAM then DISCHARGE the CMOS
Fig 01 shows a schematic diagram or plan of the MOTHERBOARD, while fig 02 shows a real picture of it. Learning to read the schematic diagram is important as it acts like a street map to the MOTHERBOARD and the locations of JUMPER setting and connectors. The type and model of the one shown is called a WINFAST 760GXK8MC.
Fig 03 shows the rear of the MOTHERBOARD and some of the external connections. We will deal with each of these as we progress.
The next diagram shows the major components on the MOTHERBOARD which we will be dealing with in this TASK
Fig 04 shows the ZERO INSERTION FORCE or ZIF SOCKET that holds the CPU. This type of socket allows simple replacement or upgrade of the processor. Processors that use a ZIF socket can easily be removed by lifting a small release lever next to the processor and lifting it out. The replacement processor is then placed in the socket and secured by pushing the lever in the opposite direction -- hence the phrase, "ZERO INSERTION FORCE."
Fig 05 is the socket for the MEMORY or RAM. Fig 06 shows the location of the CMOS BATTERY and the two pins that allow us to DISCHARGE THE CMOS. If you are following this using your own components you should identify them on the MOTHERBOARD you are using before continuing.
Once the CPU, FAN and MEMORY have been installed on to the MOTHERBOARD it can be secured into the CASE. It is supported by small metal or plastic pillars, screws are then placed through the MOTHERBOARD into these to fix it to the computer CASE.
The CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT or CPU is the heart of any computer. It is measured on CYCLES PER SECOND, therefore a CPU SPEED of 3000 runs 3 times faster than one rated at 1000. Almost all the information on the MOTHERBOARD has to pass through the CPU. The two leading manufactures of CPU’S are INTEL and AMD, fig 07
Essentially they contain TRANSISTORS that are used like switches and the more they have the faster it can process information. However this switching creates heat and for the CPU to operate within its limits, it must maintain a constant temperature which is achieved by a HEAT SINK AND FAN, fig 08.
RAM MEMORY is used to temporally store DATA or information, however anything held within the RAM is lost when the power to the computer is removed.
The MOTHERBOARD is used to transmit information to the ELECTRONIC components attached to it, from the CPU to the VIDEO CARD, or from the HARD DRIVE to the CPU. Naturally all these items must be connected together to form a path, it is this path we call the BUS or sometimes refered to as the BACK SIDE BUS
The CPU is the fastest ELECTRONIC component found within the computer system, the next being the MAIN MEMORY or RAM. However not everthing is as fast as the RAM, infact the CPU can access DATA thousands of times faster from the RAM than it can from the HARD DRIVE, which creates a speed problem if everthing is on a common BUS.
Therefore a special BUS system has been created between the CPU and the RAM and it is called the FRONT SIDE BUS or FSB.
The speed at which the information travels along the FSB is measured in HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OPERATIONS PER SECOND.
When power is removed, the MOTHERBOARD is required to store a small amount of information, such as TIME, DATE, what types of DRIVES are fitted, this is held within a CHIP called the CMOS and is powered by a BATTERY.
When a MOTHERBOARD is manufactured it undergoes various testing procedures that can affect the CMOS SETTINGS. Since it is possible that these tests could affect the performance of the MOTHERBOARD, any information that is held within the CMOS must be erased and is referred to as DISCHARGING THE CMOS.
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